Elections

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constituency

About Indian Elections

India is a democratic country where elections are held for the Parliament, legislative assemblies and various local bodies that govern their respective areas. In a normal case, elections for the Parliament and state legislative assemblies are held every five years. Elections for one-third of the seats of the upper house of the Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, are conducted every two years. The Election Commission of India is the body that conducts polls.

Members of lower houses of the Parliament and state legislative assemblies, known as Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha respectively, are elected directly by people. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected indirectly by the state legislative assemblies based on proportional representation. Similarly, Members of state legislative councils, also known as Vidhan Parishad, are elected indirectly through local bodies.

The Prime Minister of India is elected by members of the Lok Sabha. Likewise, the Chief Minister is elected by members of Vidhan Sabha. The President of India is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of and the legislative assemblies of each state.

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PartyColor

Past Lok Sabha Election Results

Year Election Seats Leading Party
2014 16th Lok Sabha 282 / 545 BJP
2009 15th Lok Sabha 206 / 545 INC
2004 14th Lok Sabha 145 / 543 INC
1999 13th Lok Sabha 182 / 545 BJP
1998 12th Lok Sabha 182 / 545 BJP
1996 11th Lok Sabha 161 / 543 BJP
1991 10th Lok Sabha 244 / 521 INC
1989 9th Lok Sabha 195 / 529 INC
1984 8th Lok Sabha 404 / 514 INC
1977 6th Lok Sabha 298 / 542 JP
1971 5th Lok Sabha 352 / 518 INC
1967 4th Lok Sabha 283 / 520 INC
1962 3rd Lok Sabha 361 / 494 INC
1957 2nd Lok Sabha 371 / 494 INC
1951 1st Lok Sabha 364 / 489 INC
Assembly Elections : Current Statewise Ruling Parties
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PartyColor

Past Assembly Election Results

Year State Seats Leading Party
2018 Karnataka 104 / 224 BJP
2018 Tripura 35 / 59 BJP
2018 Nagaland 27 / 60 NPF
2018 Meghalaya 21 / 60 INC
2017 Punjab 77 / 117 INC
2017 Uttar pradesh 312 / 403 BJP
2017 Uttarakhand 57 / 70 BJP
2017 Manipur 28 / 60 INC
2017 Himachal Pradesh 44 / 68 BJP
2017 Gujarat 99 / 182 BJP
2017 Goa 17 / 40 INC
2016 Assam 60 / 126 BJP
2016 Kerala 58 / 140 CPI(M)
2016 Pondicherry 15 / 30 INC
2016 Tamil Nadu 134 / 232 AIADMK
2016 West Bengal 211 / 294 AITC
2015 Bihar 80 / 243 RJD
2015 Delhi 67 / 70 AAP
2014 Maharashtra 122 / 288 BJP
2014 Andhra Pradesh 117 / 294 Telugu Desam
2014 Arunachal Pradesh 42 / 60 INC
2014 Haryana 47 / 90 BJP
2014 Jammu and Kashmir 28 / 87 JKPDP
2014 Jharkhand 37 / 81 BJP
2014 Sikkim 22 / 32 SDF
2014 Odisha 117 / 147 BJD
2014 Telangana 63 / 119 TRS
2013 Delhi 31 / 70 BJP
2013 Rajasthan 163 / 200 BJP
2013 Chhattisgarh 50 / 90 BJP
2013 Nagaland 38 / 60 NPF
2013 Karnataka 122 / 224 INC
2013 Tripura 49 / 60 CPI
2013 Meghalaya 29 / 60 INC
2013 Madhya Pradesh 165 / 230 BJP
2013 Mizoram 34 / 40 INC
2012 Goa 21 / 40 BJP
2012 Gujarat 119 / 182 BJP
2012 Himachal Pradesh 36 / 68 INC
2012 Manipur 42 / 60 INC
2012 Punjab 56 / 117 SAD
2012 Uttar pradesh 224 / 403 SP
2012 Uttarakhand 32 / 70 INC
2011 Assam 78 / 126 INC
2011 Kerala 45 / 140 CPM
2011 Pondicherry 15 / 30 AINRC
2011 Tamil Nadu 150 / 234 AIADMK
2011 West Bengal 184 / 294 AITC
2010 Bihar 115 / 243 JD(U)
2009 Maharashtra 82 / 288 INC
2009 Arunachal Pradesh 42 / 60 INC
2009 Haryana 40 / 90 INC
2009 Jharkhand 18 / 81 JMM
2009 Odisha 103 / 147 BJD
2009 Sikkim 32 / 32 SDF
2009 Andhra Pradesh 156 / 294 INC
2008 Delhi 43 / 70 INC
2008 Jammu and Kashmir 28 / 87 JKN
2008 Rajasthan 96 / 200 INC
2008 Chhattisgarh 50 / 90 BJP
2008 Nagaland 26 / 60 NPF
2008 Karnataka 110 / 224 BJP
2008 Madhya Pradesh 173 / 230 BJP
2008 Mizoram 32 / 40 INC
2008 Tripura 46 / 60 CPI
2008 Meghalaya 25 / 60 INC
2007 Goa 16 / 40 INC
2007 Gujarat 117 / 182 BJP
2007 Himachal Pradesh 41 / 68 BJP
2007 Manipur 30 / 60 INC
2007 Punjab 48 / 116 SAD
2007 Uttar pradesh 206 / 403 BSP
2007 Uttarakhand 34 / 69 BJP
2006 Assam 53 / 126 INC
2006 Kerala 61 / 140 CPM
2006 Pondicherry 10 / 30 INC
2006 Tamil Nadu 96 / 234 DMK
2006 West Bengal 176 / 294 CPI)(M)
2005 Bihar 75 / 243 RJD
2005 Haryana 67 / 90 INC
2005 Jharkhand 30 / 81 BJP
2004 Maharashtra 71 / 288 NCP
2004 Andhra Pradesh 185 / 294 INC
2004 Arunachal Pradesh 34 / 60 INC
2004 Odisha 61 / 147 BJD
2004 Sikkim 31 / 32 SDF
2004 Karnataka 79 / 224 BJP
2003 Delhi 47 / 70 INC
2003 Himachal Pradesh 43 / 68 INC
2003 Rajasthan 120 / 200 BJP
2003 Chhattisgarh 50 / 90 BJP
2003 Meghalaya 22 / 60 INC
2003 Nagaland 21 / 60 INC
2003 Madhya Pradesh 173 / 230 BJP
2003 Mizoram 21 / 40 MNF
2003 Tripura 38 / 60 CPM
2002 Goa 17 / 40 BJP
2002 Gujarat 127 / 182 BJP
2002 Jammu and Kashmir 28 / 87 JKN
2002 Manipur 20 / 60 INC
2002 Punjab 62 / 117 INC
2002 Uttar pradesh 143 / 403 SP
2002 Uttarakhand 36 / 70 INC
2001 Assam 71 / 126 INC
2001 Kerala 62 / 140 INC
2001 Pondicherry 11 / 30 INC
2001 Tamil Nadu 132 / 234 AIADMK
2001 West Bengal 143 / 294 CPI-M
2000 Bihar 124 / 324 RJD
2000 Haryana 47 / 90 INLD
2000 Manipur 23 / 60 MSCP
2000 Odisha 68 / 147 BJD
1999 Maharashtra 75 / 288 INC
1999 Arunachal Pradesh 53 / 60 INC
1999 Goa 22 / 40 INC
1999 Sikkim 24 / 32 SDF
1999 Karnataka 132 / 224 INC
1999 Andhra Pradesh 180 / 294 TDP
1998 Delhi 52 / 70 INC
1998 Gujarat 117 / 182 BJP
1998 Himachal Pradesh 31 / 68 BJP
1998 Rajasthan 153 / 200 INC
1998 Meghalaya 25 / 60 INC
1998 Nagaland 53 / 60 INC
1998 Madhya Pradesh 172 / 320 INC
1998 Mizoram 21 / 40 MNF
1998 Tripura 38 / 60 CPM
1997 Punjab 75 / 117 SAD
1996 Assam 59 / 122 AGP
1996 Haryana 33 / 90 HVP
1996 Jammu and Kashmir 57 / 87 JKN
1996 Kerala 55 / 140 INC
1996 Pondicherry 9 / 30 INC
1996 Tamil Nadu 173 / 234 DMK
1996 Uttar pradesh 174 / 424 BJP
1996 West Bengal 157 / 294 CPI-M
1995 Maharashtra 80 / 288 INC
1995 Arunachal Pradesh 43 / 60 INC
1995 Bihar 167 / 324 Janata Dal (Jd)
1995 Gujarat 121 / 182 BJP
1995 Manipur 22 / 60 INC
1995 Odisha 81 / 147 INC
1994 Andhra Pradesh 216 / 294 Telugu Desam Party
1994 Goa 18 / 40 INC
1994 Sikkim 19 / 32 SDF
1994 Karnataka 115 / 224 JD
1993 Delhi 49 / 70 BJP
1993 Himachal Pradesh 52 / 68 INC
1993 Rajasthan 95 / 199 BJP
1993 Uttar pradesh 177 / 425 BJP
1993 Nagaland 38 / 60 NPF
1993 Madhya Pradesh 174 / 320 INC
1993 Mizoram 16 / 40 INC
1993 Tripura 44 / 60 CPM
1993 Meghalaya 24 / 60 INC
1992 Punjab 87 / 117 INC
1991 Assam 66 / 126 INC
1991 Haryana 51 / 90 INC
1991 Kerala 55 / 140 INC
1991 Pondicherry 15 / 30 INC
1991 Tamil Nadu 164 / 234 AIADMK
1991 Uttar pradesh 221 / 425 BJP
1991 West Bengal 189 / 294 CPI-M
1990 Maharashtra 141 / 288 INC
1990 Arunachal Pradesh 37 / 60 INC
1990 Bihar 122 / 324 JD
1990 Gujarat 70 / 182 JD
1990 Himachal Pradesh 46 / 68 BJP
1990 Manipur 24 / 54 INC
1990 Odisha 123 / 147 Janata Dal
1990 Pondicherry 11 / 30 INC
1990 Rajasthan 85 / 200 BJP
1990 Madhya Pradesh 220 / 320 BJP
1989 Andhra Pradesh 181 / 294 INC
1989 Goa 20 / 40 INC
1989 Sikkim 32 / 32 SSP
1989 Tamil Nadu 150 / 234 DMK
1989 Uttar pradesh 208 / 425 JD
1989 Karnataka 178 / 224 INC
1987 Haryana 60 / 90 LKD
1987 Jammu and Kashmir 40 / 76 JKN
1987 Kerala 38 / 140 CPM
1987 West Bengal 187 / 294 CPI-M
1985 Maharashtra 161 / 288 INC
1985 Andhra Pradesh 202 / 294 Telugu Desam Party
1985 Assam 92 / 126 IND
1985 Bihar 196 / 324 INC
1985 Gujarat 149 / 182 INC
1985 Himachal Pradesh 58 / 68 INC
1985 Odisha 117 / 147 INC
1985 Punjab 73 / 117 SAD
1985 Pondicherry 15 / 30 INC(I)
1985 Rajasthan 113 / 200 INC
1985 Sikkim 30 / 32 SSP
1985 Uttar pradesh 269 / 425 INC
1985 Karnataka 139 / 224 JNP
1985 Madhya Pradesh 250 / 320 INC
1984 Arunachal Pradesh 21 / 30 INC
1984 Manipur 30 / 60 INC
1984 Tamil Nadu 132 / 234 ADK
1983 Assam 91 / 109 INC
1983 Delhi 34 / 56 INC
1983 Jammu and Kashmir 46 / 75 JKN
1983 Karnataka 95 / 224 JNP
1983 Andhra Pradesh 219 / 294 IND
1982 Haryana 36 / 90 INC
1982 Himachal Pradesh 31 / 68 INC
1982 Kerala 34 / 140 IND
1982 West Bengal 174 / 294 CPI-M
1980 Maharashtra 186 / 288 INC(I)
1980 Arunachal Pradesh 13 / 30 PPA
1980 Bihar 169 / 324 INC(I)
1980 Goa 20 / 30 INC(U)
1980 Gujarat 141 / 182 INC(I)
1980 Kerala 35 / 140 CPM
1980 Manipur 19 / 60 IND
1980 Odisha 118 / 147 INC(I)
1980 Punjab 63 / 117 INC(I)
1980 Pondicherry 14 / 30 DMK
1980 Rajasthan 133 / 200 INC(I)
1980 Tamil Nadu 129 / 234 ADK
1980 Uttar pradesh 309 / 425 INC (I)
1980 Madhya Pradesh 246 / 320 INC(I)
1979 Sikkim 16 / 32 SJP
1978 Maharashtra 99 / 288 JP
1978 Arunachal Pradesh 17 / 30 JNP
1978 Assam 53 / 126 JNP
1978 Karnataka 149 / 224 INC
1977 Bihar 214 / 324 JNP
1977 Delhi 46 / 56 JNP
1977 Goa 15 / 30 MAG
1977 Haryana 75 / 90 JNP
1977 Himachal Pradesh 53 / 68 JNP
1977 Jammu and Kashmir 47 / 76 JKN
1977 Kerala 38 / 140 INC
1977 Odisha 110 / 147 JP
1977 Punjab 58 / 117 SAD
1977 Pondicherry 14 / 30 ADK
1977 Rajasthan 152 / 200 JNP
1977 Tamil Nadu 130 / 234 ADK
1977 Uttar pradesh 352 / 425 JNP
1977 West Bengal 178 / 294 CPI-M
1977 Madhya Pradesh 230 / 320 JNP
1975 Gujarat 75 / 182 INC
1974 Manipur 20 / 60 MRP
1974 Odisha 69 / 146 INC
1974 Pondicherry 12 / 30 ADK
1974 Uttar pradesh 215 / 424 INC
1972 Maharashtra 222 / 270 INC
1972 Andhra Pradesh 219 / 287 INC
1972 Assam 95 / 114 INC
1972 Bihar 167 / 318 INC
1972 Delhi 44 / 56 INC
1972 Goa 18 / 30 MAG
1972 Gujarat 140 / 168 INC
1972 Haryana 52 / 81 INC
1972 Himachal Pradesh 53 / 68 INC
1972 Jammu and Kashmir 58 / 75 INC
1972 Manipur 19 / 60 IND
1972 Punjab 66 / 104 INC
1972 Rajasthan 145 / 184 INC
1972 West Bengal 216 / 280 INC
1972 Karnataka 149 / 216 INC
1972 Madhya Pradesh 220 / 296 BJS
1971 Odisha 51 / 140 INC
1971 Tamil Nadu 184 / 234 DMK
1971 West Bengal 113 / 279 CPI-M
1970 Kerala 30 / 133 INC
1969 Bihar 118 / 318 INC
1969 Punjab 43 / 104 SAD
1969 Pondicherry 15 / 30 DMK
1969 Uttar pradesh 211 / 425 INC
1969 West Bengal 80 / 280 CPI-M
1968 Haryana 48 / 81 INC
1967 Maharashtra 203 / 270 INC
1967 Andhra Pradesh 165 / 287 INC
1967 Assam 73 / 126 INC
1967 Bihar 128 / 318 INC
1967 Goa 16 / 30 MAG
1967 Gujarat 93 / 168 INC
1967 Haryana 48 / 81 INC
1967 Himachal Pradesh 34 / 60 INC
1967 Jammu and Kashmir 61 / 75 INC
1967 Kerala 52 / 133 CPM
1967 Manipur 16 / 30 INC
1967 Odisha 49 / 140 Swatantra Party
1967 Punjab 48 / 104 INC
1967 Rajasthan 89 / 184 INC
1967 Tamil Nadu 137 / 234 DMK
1967 Uttar pradesh 199 / 425 INC
1967 West Bengal 127 / 280 INC
1967 Karnataka 126 / 216 INC
1967 Madhya Pradesh 167 / 296 INC
1965 Kerala 40 / 133 CPI(M)
1964 Pondicherry 20 / 30 CONG
1962 Maharashtra 215 / 264 INC
1962 Andhra Pradesh 177 / 300 INC
1962 Assam 79 / 105 INC
1962 Gujarat 113 / 154 INC
1962 Jammu and Kashmir 70 / 75 NC
1962 Punjab 90 / 154 INC
1962 Rajasthan 88 / 176 INC
1962 Uttar pradesh 249 / 430 INC
1962 West Bengal 157 / 252 INC
1962 Karnataka 138 / 208 INC
1962 Madhya Pradesh 142 / 288 INC
1961 Odisha 82 / 140 INC
1960 Kerala 58 / 114 INC
1957 Andhra Pradesh 54 / 85 INC
1957 Assam 71 / 108 INC
1957 Kerala 55 / 114 CPI
1957 Odisha 56 / 140 INC
1957 Punjab 120 / 154 INC
1957 Rajasthan 119 / 176 INC
1957 Uttar pradesh 286 / 430 INC
1957 West Bengal 152 / 252 INC
1957 Karnataka 150 / 208 INC
1955 Andhra Pradesh 99 / 167 INC
1951 Assam 76 / 105 INC
1951 Delhi 39 / 48 INC
1951 Himachal Pradesh 24 / 36 INC
1951 Odisha 67 / 140 INC
1951 Punjab 96 / 126 INC
1951 Rajasthan 82 / 160 INC
1951 Uttar pradesh 388 / 430 INC
1951 West Bengal 150 / 238 INC
1951 Madhya Pradesh 194 / 232 INC

Political Parties in India

India follows a multi-party system. Political parties in India are mainly categorised into two types — national party and regional party. While national level parties (such as Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Samajwadi Party, Aam Aadmi Party etc) contest the elections all over India, the regional ones (such as Shiv Sena, AIADMK, Akali Dal etc) only fight the polls within the state they belong to. A state can have a number of regional parties.

The status of all the parties has to be reviewed and registered by the Election Commission of India (ECI). Based on a party's objective, it is recognised as a national or state level party. An Election Commission-recognised party enjoys a symbol, free broadcast time on state run television and radio among other privileges. Currently, there are a total number of 1841 parties in India, with 7 national parties, 51 state parties, and 1785 unrecognised parties.

For a party to be recognised as a national party, it needs to have "2% of seats in the Sabha from at least three different states", recognition in four states, and "6% of votes in four states in the Lok Sabha polls". For a state party to be recognised, it should have 3% seats in the Legislative Assembly, one seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats, six percent valid votes polled during Lok Sabha polls, and at least one Lok Sabha seat among others.

Some of the unrecognised parties include: Amra Bangali, Bahujan Republican Socialist Party, Jai Samaikyandhra Party, Kerala Congress (Jacob),and Param Digvijay Dal.

No. Party Symbol Abbreviation
1 Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
SS
2 All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
AIADMK
3 Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
DMK
4 Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
MGP
5 Asom Gana Parishad
Asom Gana Parishad
AGP
6 Indian National Lok Dal
Indian National Lok Dal
INLD
7 Shiromani Akali Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
SAD
8 Rashtriya Janata Dal
Rashtriya Janata Dal
RJD
9 Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party
TDP
10 Communist Party of India Marxist (CPIM)
Communist Party of India Marxist (CPIM)
CPIM
11 Janata Dal (United)
Janata Dal (United)
JDU
12 Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
SP
13 All India Trinamool Congress
All India Trinamool Congress
TMC
14 Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party
PDP
15 National Conference
National Conference
JKNC
16 Nationalist Congress Party
Nationalist Congress Party
NCP
17 Biju Janata Dal
Biju Janata Dal
BJD
18 All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen
AIMIM
19 Telangana Rashtra Samithi
Telangana Rashtra Samithi
TRS
*Disclaimer: Facts and numbers placed above have been sourced from official election websites. LatestLY does not take responsibility for the same.

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